In late March, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the "Special Governance Plan for the Construction and Operation of Coal-fired Power Plants (Consultation Draft)" (hereinafter referred to as "Draft for Comment"), requiring strict control of new coal-fired self-supplied power plants, comprehensive Clean up coal-fired self-supplied power plants that violate laws and regulations. Since the date of issuance of the plan, the new coal-fired self-supplied power plant has not been approved or not included in the plan, and it is required to be strictly accountable, and all power generation projects in the province (autonomous region, municipality) will be suspended. The industry is called "the most stringent coal-fired power plant remediation plan in history." In fact, as early as last year, the National Development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration have formed special inspection teams with the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Environmental Protection, and selected some provinces to conduct on-site investigations. When it comes to self-supplied power plants, it has to be mentioned that electrolytic aluminum enterprises with extremely high power consumption require 13,000 kWh and 2 tons of alumina to produce one ton of electrolytic aluminum, and the consumption of electric energy is about 40% of the production cost. The self-sufficient power plant of Shandong Weiqiao, which is the leading enterprise of electrolytic aluminum production in China, has also been the focus of debate on the issue of self-provided power plants. The self-provided power plant is plagued by a self-supplied power plant. It is a power plant that the enterprise invests in to meet the energy consumption requirements of its own electricity, gas, etc., and generally does not send electricity to the national grid. The emergence of self-provided power plants has its complicated historical and institutional background. In the 1980s, various industries were seriously devoid of electricity. After the power industry policy changed from exclusive power management to encourage a number of power-generating and multi-channel power generation, high-energy-consuming enterprises in various places have started their own power plants. In the era of insufficient power supply and high electricity prices, captive power plants have reduced the cost of electricity for enterprises, and can also take into account the heat demand of surrounding enterprises and residents. However, after the long-term power shortage has gradually disappeared, in the Chinese power market, the self-supplied power plants are often criticized for “unfair social responsibility”, “management chaos”, “increasing environmental pollution”, and are separated between legal and illegal borders. . As the largest province of self-supplied power plants, the installed capacity of Shandong's self-supplied power plants accounted for 31.12% of the total installed capacity of power in the province in 2017, and Shandong Weiqiao is undoubtedly the “leading” of Shandong's own power plants. In recent years, China's new capacity and output of electrolytic aluminum is mainly concentrated in Xinjiang, Shandong, Inner Mongolia and other places. Most of the newly produced electrolytic aluminum production capacity in these areas is based on self-supplied power plants. As we all know, the cost of electricity accounts for more than half of the cost of electrolytic aluminum production. In recent years, a major factor that has aggravated the overcapacity of electrolytic aluminum in China is the uneven production capacity and cost caused by the imbalance of electricity prices between regions, and the possession of captive power plants. The company has a huge advantage in terms of cost and continues to increase investment in new electrolytic aluminum production capacity. In fact, Shandong Weiqiao was not taken care of by the outside world. Until 2012, the news that “the price of Shandong Weiqiao self-built grid was 1/3 cheaper than that of the national grid” came out. Since then, when it comes to the self-supplied power plant, The company is always the focus of attention. In the 1990s, China's power resources were in short supply, power supply was unstable, and there was often a phenomenon of arbitrary power cuts, which seriously affected the production order of some high-power-consuming enterprises, and the production costs of such enterprises rose sharply. It is understood that before the self-built power plant was put into production, Weiqiao has been producing steam required for textile in the form of a boiler, which is economically inefficient and not environmentally friendly. According to relevant data, on September 28, 1999, Shandong Weiqiao No. 1 Thermal Power Plant was completed and put into operation, with a rated installed capacity of 78,000 watts. In the last year, Shandong Weiqiao only shut down coal-fired power units with 5.7 million kilowatts. According to relevant information, Shandong Weiqiao is building electricity for the textile and aluminum enterprises by building an island power grid, generating electricity, dispatching, operating and supplying electricity. The electricity and steam produced by the company's thermal power plants are used for self-use and export, respectively, of which the self-use ratio is about 34.76%, which is mainly used for the production of the company itself and related subsidiaries. According to public data, from 2013 to January to March 2016, the self-generation cost of Shandong Weiqiao was 0.29 yuan, 0.21 yuan, 0.18 yuan and 0.17 yuan per kWh respectively, of which the lowest cost in 2016 was 0.17 yuan/kWh. , far below the national grid. Whether it is illegal or not, there is no relevant person who does not want to be named to the "Securities Daily" reporter said that the low cost of power generation in Shandong Weiqiao mainly comes from several reasons. First, the coal price is low, and the cost of coal is strictly controlled through monthly tenders. Coal prices stand at around 80% of the cost of electricity generation, so controlling coal prices will reduce natural costs. Second, the labor cost is low. The power plant of Shandong Weiqiao is not as good as the state-owned power plant. There are also gaps in other welfare, so the power generation cost is lower than that of the state-owned power plant. Third, avoiding government funds and industrial adjustment funds. No government fund of 0.0648 yuan and industrial adjustment fund of 0.0139 yuan / kWh. At the same time, Shandong Weiqiao's self-supplied power plant generates electricity, including 0.02 yuan for rural network repayment funds, 0.007 yuan for the Three Gorges Project Construction Fund, and 0.01 yuan for urban public utilities. Fourth, there is no cross-subsidy for residents and agriculture of 0.046 yuan / kWh. Fifth, the number of hours of power generation is high. The utilization hours of power generation are more than 6,500 hours, which is much higher than the current average utilization of thermal power generation of 4,100 hours. “Since the construction of the self-provided power plant, this model of Shandong Weiqiao has been controversial. Many people believe that this mode of isolated power supply is not legal, unsafe, and not environmentally friendly.” Relevant aluminum enterprises have been to reporters. Said. Although the company's own power plant has played a significant role in alleviating the power shortage during the peak power period in the past years, with the continuous increase of the installed capacity and power generation capacity of the self-provided power plant in Shandong Weiqiao, the self-supplied power plant and the power plant and power grid management The contradictions between enterprises have gradually emerged. At the same time, some analysts pointed out that Shandong Weiqiao Power Plant is essentially illegal. The company's power plant exceeded the power supply range to supply power to social users, violating the Electricity Law. The positioning of China's self-supplied power plants is self-sufficient, and the surplus power is connected to the Internet. The power grid provides backup for it and cannot supply power to the outside. This is stipulated by national laws. The Shandong Weiqiao Power Plant and the local Huaneng Power Plant and Shandong Power Grid in Binzhou, Shandong Province have been negotiated many times, but the consensus on the surplus power grid has only been running for a period of time and has been abandoned. Since Shandong Weiqiao Power Plant avoided government funds and did not undertake cross-subsidization for residents and agriculture, and did not assume due social obligations, its rationality was also questioned. According to the "Guiding Opinions on Strengthening and Regulating the Supervision and Management of Coal-fired Power Plants", the self-supplied power of self-supplied power plants shall bear and pay the national major water conservancy project construction fund, rural net repayment fund, and renewable energy development fund. Large and medium-sized reservoir resettlement support funds and urban public utilities additional government funds and legal cross-subsidies. The policy cross-subsidy is the consideration of the people's livelihood and social stability, and the preferential price of electricity for some types of users (such as residents, agriculture, important public utilities and public welfare services) is implemented through large industrial, industrial and commercial users. Higher than the actual cost of electricity to subsidize. In addition, Shandong Weiqiao Power Plant faces the pressure of reducing pollution and reducing pressure. Due to the lack of national regulations on the management of captive power plants, many regions have invested in a number of low-efficiency, high-pollution small units and small thermal power plants in the name of comprehensive utilization of resources and cogeneration, bypassing the national normal approval process. . In 2015, the Ministry of Environmental Protection, the National Development and Reform Commission and the National Energy Administration issued the “Comprehensive Implementation Plan for Ultra-Low Emissions and Energy-saving Reconstruction of Coal-fired Power Plants”. As the national environmental policy became more stringent, the Shandong Weiqiao model itself also faced a backward elimination. The unit will increase the operating pressure of the large-scale low-emission unit. These are clearly stated in the “Notice on Implementing the National Requirements for Promoting the Orderly Development of Coal and Electricity, etc.” issued on May 5, 2016 in Shandong Province: priority is given to the elimination of the following units, and pure solidification for less than 300,000 kilowatts for 20 years or less. The unit and the pumping-heating unit that has been in operation for 25 years; after the transformation, the coal consumption of the power supply still cannot reach the unit specified in the “Energy Consumption Limit of Units for Conventional Coal-fired Generating Units” (excluding super (super) critical units); Units that meet the national environmental protection requirements and do not implement environmental protection transformation. At present, there are also rumors in the industry that once the special construction and operation plan for coal-fired self-supplied power plants is truly promulgated and implemented, and the Shandong Weiqiao self-supplied power plant is found to be in violation of regulations or illegal, the company may bear fines or even the risk of stopping the self-supplied power plant.

There are two main production processes. The first type micro-prism-type body reflective logo, mainly using a high-quality, durable micro-prism structure of the reflective material. The structure for the reflecting marking quality requirements of the demanding high reflectivity, its pure, bright color to improve the significance of the day marked.

The second process is made of sealed capsule type reflective material, the width for the logo is 50mm, the surface color is white (150mm).Red interval. In which, white is reflective material natural color, red ink printed on the surface film by silk-screen printing.The surface of the material has a regular hexagonal embossed reflective material structure. Including transparent surface film, air film, glass beads, support layer, resin layer, gum and paper.

ECE104 conspicuity tape

Vehicle Conspicuity Marking Tape,Conspicuity Marking Tape,Reflective Vehicle Sticker,Reflective Vehicle Conspicuity Tape

Daoming Optics & Chemical Co., Ltd , https://www.reflectives.nl